breeding program

THE FROST RESISTANCE

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A rose for our gardens should not loom large in our minds and should overwinter severe winters without covering (also winters in Suwalki in 4 USDA zone). It own roots should constitute enough policy for other harsh atmospheric factors like wind and temperature jumps. In case of eventual nipping by the frost of the above-ground part, it is the own roots where the regeneration process shall start. A rose on it's own roots is the guarantor of a gardener's peaceful sleep.

The crucial matter for roses in our climate are temperature jumps in February. In my opinion it is necessary to monitor and choose the varieties that simply wake later. Precisely speaking, such roses which need more warmth to start vegetation. Inclusion of such varieties into the breeding program may (in the future) give the effect of „safety buffer” for a few days winter warming up.

THE DISEASE RESISTANCE

black spot

 

A bush should put up resistance to most of the fungal disease especially to black spots and mildew. A bush might give in to infection but must cope with it until late Autumn. It is so called „horizontal resistance” which keeps infection at the same level for long years. The bushes infected with fungal spores won't strip from the leaves in a sudden manner (eg. in August). Naked, smitten roses recover from losses and, weakened by effort, they enter into winter sleep badly. On the other hand the bushes with disease symptoms, dealing with the results of the spreading of the mycelium on the moderate level (retaining „horizontal resistance”), establish better commercial and breeding value. In other words „horizontal resistance” gives bush control over the infection. There are known bushes that were announced as fully resistant to spot disease. Time has shown that after years or in other geographical regions they were struck with the disease, often in a violent „vertical” manner. It results from gene mutation of the fungus, which finally finds a way to living tissue. These facts speak for selection of varieties with „horizontal resistance” even more.

THE FORM OF THE BUSHES

'Nevada'

'Nevada'

 

THE FORM OF THE BUSHES

Vital for me, and I think that also for many modern gardeners, is the below-mentioned type of the bush. Mixed flowerbeds, on which perennials are found together with  annual plants and bushes, require presence of regular, shapely and equal forms. A rose should be tight without surprising sprouts. To complete good impression even before the appearing of the flower or after  losing it's blossom, dense and healthy leafage is necessary. The case is different for the park roses. It would be good if their type would match the natural one as far as possible.

HE SCENT

white_and_red_rose_petals_200325

 

THE SCENT

The flower of the rose should be completed with the scent. Without it, the part of the mythical queen irretrievably vanishes. By no means it is not about stunning aroma of the damask roses. I care more about perceptible gentle note which always accompanies the flower. It may free us from many uncomfortable situations when a woman gifted with a flower instinctively raises it to her nose and after inhaling there occurs an awkward silence and quick change of subject. The genes responsible for scent are recessive and it often happens, that after crossbreeding varieties with a strong scent you obtain scentless breed. A great randomness takes place there. That is why obtaining a scent is merely a wishful thought in this case.

THE FLOWER

THE FLOWER

While searching for the roses for Polish winter, the substance of the flower as well as it's aspect don't determine the search. There are other features that count, like: good look after raining and self-topping the petals.

Other trace which I want to follow is specialization in the shape of the flower alone. Searching for some distinctive features. My requirements of the specificity are met by the following: ‘Marita’ - J..Mattock 1961, 'Brat Roge Ł.Rojewski', ‘Duchess of Montebello’, ‘Catherine Mermet’, ‘Autumn’, ‘Canadian Withe Star’, ‘Evening Star’ and ‘Mutabilis’. In principle I am interested in achieving a full flower where the petals meaningfully enlarge outside and wind. The bigger exterior rosette quickly falls down emphasizing the interior corolla. Such flower looks quite peculiar and resembles a dahlia or a jellyfish. In case of  searching for above-mentioned particular flower – the resistance matters are brought to the background.

Korpriwa x Fr.Roger

Korpriwa x Fr.Roger

 

Roses for Poland

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Detailed actions

In order to obtain rose varieties able to cope with winter conditions in Poland it is necessary to treat strictly all of the breeding guidelines:

  1. One of the parents must have proven status of a plant outstandingly resistant to frost
  2. Covering before winter or alternatively other protection is to be used only during the first year of life of the plant.
  3. Not all off the species are suitable for hybridization although  self-pollination produces rich crop of seeds. Pollination with an alien pollen gives good results in case of closely related species like eg. r. lucida and r. parviflora
  4. In our climate numerous varieties bind germinating seeds not until old age.
  5. Not all stamen reach maturity for pollination in the same time.
  6. I pollinate less resistant species with more resistant ones. As a result more resistant species give part of their resistance to their breed, eg. Rosa microphylla (Rosa roxburghii) known as a highly resistant rose, crossbred with r. beggeriana ensures completely resistant breed.
  7. Self-pollination of some of the species is possible a day before the blooming because the anthers most often pollinate in the evening. It is most common for Rosa ferox (Rosa glutinosa) and Rosa rugosa.
  8. Varieties artificially pollinated may often seem as sterile, it may be beneficial to use their pollen (use as a pollinator) as in case of ‘Roberty Bodnar’ J.Fleming.
  9. Nordlandrose crossbreeds are mostly fertile.
  10. Infertile hybrids sometimes grow single fruits in the old age. From these ones which arise as a result of a random pollination of seeds there arise roses which have a tendency to self-pollinate but only when they return to primordial (first or second) father or mother type.
  11. Hybrids usually keep the type of father plant while the shape and the color of the flowers is similar to mother plant. If the mother plant blooms with white flowers and flowers of the father plant are purple then we are going to obtain mostly white-blooming hybrids from such crossbreeds.

Climbers for Poland

Aim: obtaining climbers durable throughout our winters, resistant to fungal diseases, with big flowers, repeating blooming even in three batches.

How to achieve it?

By mixing Geschwind roses with Canadian  roses. I thought about crossbreeds in following groups:

Nordlanderose I
‘Demokracie’ J.Bohm

‘Williama Baffina’ Dr.F.Svejdy

‘Altissimo’ G.Delbarda

{09/3 Louise Odier x Rosa Rugosa} (200-300 cm)Ł.Rojewski

‘Blaze Improved’ Jan Bohn Climber (360-480cm) 3b

‘Felix Lecler’c syn ‘U11’

‘Carefree Beauty’ syn ‘Katy Road Pink’

‘Erin Fleming’

‘Souvenir de Brod’ Geschwind 1884

L 83  Dr. Felicitas Svejda (Canada, 1988).

Rosarium Uetersen

Genéral Stefánik'

Floribunda

  • Fundamental action in this matter is crossbreeding roses from Explorers – Hybrid Kordesii series with Parkland series roses. My impression is that earlier actions in this direction where not only shallow but prematurely finished as well. It is a very simple undertaking where quick achievement of the aim is possible.
  • It is important to include in the program early varieties of Austin as (for example ‘Constance Spry’) which have passed the resistance tests extremely well compared to Canadian roses.
  • Chosen tea hybrids should feature delayed start of awaking from the wintering.
  • Other varieties desirable while making resistant tea hybrids to acquire for the nursery: